From a backyard summer camp for people with intellectual disabilities to a global movement, Special Olympics has been changing lives and attitudes since 1968, almost 50 years.


It all began in the 1950s and early 1960s, when Eunice Kennedy Shriver saw how unjustly and unfairly people with intellectual disabilities were treated. She also saw that many children with intellectual disabilities didn’t even have a place to play. She decided to take action.

Soon, her vision began to take shape, as she held a summer day camp for young people with intellectual disabilities in her own backyard. The goal was to learn what these children could do in sports and other activities – and not dwell on what they could not do.

Throughout the 1960s, Eunice Kennedy Shriver continued her pioneering work -- both as the driving force behind President John F. Kennedy's White House panel on people with intellectual disabilities and as the director of the Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. Foundation. Her vision and drive for justice eventually grew into the Special Olympics movement. Read more about events leading to the founding of Special Olympics.

About Intellectual Disabilities

Special Olympics is a global movement of people who want to improve the lives of people with intellectual disabilities. But what are intellectual disabilities?

20 July 1968

The first International Special Olympics Summer Games are held at Soldier Field in Chicago, Illinois, USA. A thousand people with intellectual disabilities from 26 U.S. states and Canada compete in track and field, swimming and floor hockey.

20 July 1968

Soldier Field in Chicago, site of the first International Special Olympics Summer Games.

December 1971

The U.S. Olympic Committee gives Special Olympics official approval as one of only two organizations authorized to use the name “Olympics” in the United States.

March 1975

The first major Special Olympics benefit gala is held in Washington, D.C, with U.S. President Ford as honorary chairman and featuring a rare live performance by Barbra Streisand.

5-11 February 1977

Steamboat Springs, Colorado, USA hosts the 1st International Special Olympics Winter Games. More than 500 athletes compete in skiing and skating events. CBS, ABC and NBC television networks cover the Games. See a slideshow about Special Olympics World Games

June 1981

Wichita, Kansas (USA) Police Chief Richard LaMunyon launches a Special Olympics awareness campaign that becomes the Law Enforcement Torch Run for Special Olympics. The Torch Run grows into the movement's largest grassroots fundraiser, raising approximately $30 million each year.

September 1986

The United Nations launches the International Year of Special Olympics. The theme is “Special Olympics—Uniting the World.”

October 1987

“A Very Special Christmas,” a benefit album featuring holiday music by top rock 'n' roll performers, is released worldwide. It is produced by Jimmy and Vicki Iovine of A&M Records and Bobby Shriver, with all earnings going to Special Olympics. More than 2 million records, compact discs and cassette tapes are sold.
More than two millions copies of “A Very Special Christmas” are sold in 1987.

February 1988

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) signs a historic agreement with Sargent and Eunice Kennedy Shriver officially endorsing and recognizing Special Olympics.


Official launch of the Special Olympics Unified Sports® initiative, which brings together people with and without intellectual disabilities on the same team.

20-27 March 1993

The 5th Special Olympics World Winter Games are hosted in Salzburg and Schladming, Austria. These are the first World Games held outside North America.

1-9 July 1995

Several new initiatives make their debut at the 9th Special Olympics World Summer Games. These include the Host Town Program, Healthy Athletes®, and Research and Policy Symposia. In addition, for the first time, people with intellectual disabilities serve as certified officials.

January 1997

Healthy Athletes becomes an official Special Olympics initiative, providing health-care services to Special Olympics athletes worldwide. The program includes free vision, hearing and dental screening, injury prevention clinics and nutrition education.
Special Olympics Mexico swimmer Michelle Falcon has her vision tested.

Healthy Athletes

The Healthy Athletes program has provided more than 1.6 million free health examinations in more than 130 countries since its creation in 1997.

20 July 1998

Special Olympics celebrates its 30th anniversary with the introduction of the first Sargent Shriver International Global Messengers. These 12 remarkable men and women travel the world as spokespeople for the movement over a two-year term.

17 December 1998

U.S. President Bill Clinton and First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton host “A Very Special Christmas from Washington, D.C.” It's the first time the White House hosts a Special Olympics gala and the first time that artists from “A Very Special Christmas” album series gather together to perform. In 2000, President and Mrs. Clinton host “A Very Special Christmas” for the second time.


The “Campaign for Special Olympics” sets unprecedented goals to increase athlete participation by 1 million and to raise more than $120 million over a five-year period. This global campaign changes the face of the Special Olympics movement.

18-22 May 2000

As part of the “Campaign for Special Olympics,” actor Arnold Schwarzenegger joins Special Olympics athletes to light the Flame of Hope at the Great Wall of China. They launch the Special Olympics China Millennium March and begin the most ambitious growth campaign in the movement’s history. China pledges to increase its number of athletes from 50,000 to 500,000 by 2005.

May 20-23 2001

The first-ever Global Athlete Congress takes place in The Hague, Netherlands. Special Olympics athletes from every region in the world come together to discuss the future of the Special Olympics movement. Despite differences in language, culture, age and gender they hold discussions, challenge existing ideas and vote on new resolutions.

12-14 July 2001

Cape Town, Johannesburg and Sun City, South Africa host Special Olympics African Hope. Former President Nelson Mandela, Arnold Schwarzenegger and Special Olympics athletes gather to light the Flame of Hope and kick off the largest Law Enforcement Torch Run through the streets of Cape Town. The event generates awareness of the movement throughout the continent. It also launches a major push to reach 100,000 new athletes in Africa by 2005.
Special Olympics District of Columbia athlete Ricardo Thornton with Nelson Mandela in South Africa.

African Hope

The Special Olympics African Hope event generates awareness of the Special Olympics movement throughout the continent of Africa. It also launches a major push to reach 100,000 new athletes in Africa by 2005.

October 2001

Special Olympics develops and distributes So Get Into It® kits for students with and without disabilities to schools and teachers worldwide at no cost. They teach young people about intellectual disabilities while empowering them to “be the difference.” The lessons highlight values of inclusion, acceptance and respect.

19-20 July 2002

The Nelson Mandela Children’s Fund partners with Special Olympics to host an annual birthday celebration for its founder and chairperson, former President of South Africa, Nelson Mandela. The event also helps Special Olympics spotlight its Unified Sports® program.

20 June 2003

Special Olympics releases “The Multinational Study of Attitudes toward Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities.” It's the most comprehensive global study thorough ever on this subject. The report offers valuable insight into how people around the world view the roles and capabilities of persons with intellectual disabilities in the workplace, classroom and daily social life.

21-29 June 2003

Ireland hosts the first Special Olympics World Summer Games to be held outside the United States. 5,500 athletes participate in this landmark event. It is the world's largest sporting event in 2003, capturing the hearts and imaginations of the Irish people.

30 October 2004

U.S. President George W. Bush signs the “Special Olympics Sport and Empowerment Act." This gives $15 million every year for five years to Special Olympics programs. The funding goes to initiatives that encourage greater respect and understanding for people with intellectual disabilities. This marks the first time that Special Olympics secures support through legislation.

23 December 2005

"The Ringer," a Farrelly Brothers film starring Johnny Knoxville, opens in theaters throughout Canada and the United States. The film includes appearances from more than 150 Special Olympics athletes. Its producers work with Special Olympics to challenge destructive stereotypes and negative thinking about people with intellectual disabilities.


Special Olympics surpasses its goal of doubling the number of athletes that participate worldwide to 2.5 million participants. With sports at the core, the movement stands as a leader in advancing rights and opportunities and policy change for its athletes in 165 countries worldwide.

10 June 2006

U.S. President and Mrs. George W. Bush host a tribute dinner at the White House to honor Special Olympics for its unprecedented growth over the past five years. The event also celebrates the 86th birthday of founder Eunice Kennedy Shriver.

October 2007

The city of Shanghai, China, hosts the 12th Special Olympics World Summer Games. The Games are broadcast internationally on a vast scale. Participation is at a record high -- bringing together more than 7,500 athletes from 164 countries participating.
The opening ceremony for the Games in Shanghai.

World Games in China

The spectacular opening ceremony is broadcast internationally on a vast scale. More than 7,500 athletes from 164 countries participate.

July 2008

Special Olympics celebrates its 40th anniversary as a true global movement, with nearly 3 million athletes in more than 180 countries.

February 2009

The Special Olympics World Winter Games in Boise, Idaho, USA, draws nearly 2,000 athletes from nearly 100 countries. U.S. Vice President Joe Biden visits and declares special needs advocacy "a civil rights movement."

May 2009

The U.S. National Portrait Gallery unveils a historic portrait of Eunice Kennedy Shriver. The painting is the first portrait the Gallery has ever commissioned of an individual who has not served as a U.S. President or First Lady.

11 August 2009

The founder of Special Olympics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, dies at her family home in Massachusetts. Letters and messages celebrating her contribution to humanity pour in from world leaders and people from around the world. See www.eunicekennedyshriver.org

November 2009

"A Very Special Christmas 7" is released, infusing the record-breaking Christmas record series with the energy and talent of a new generation of music stars. See www.veryspecialchristmas.org.

June 2010

The first Special Olympics Global Congress is held in Marrakech, Morocco. Hundreds of Special Olympics leaders from around the world gather to chart the next five years of work.

October 2010

Officials announce that the next Special Olympics World Winter Games will be held in PyeongChang, Republic of Korea, on 29 January-5 February 2013.

September 2010

The first global Eunice Kennedy Shriver Day is held in more than 100 countries to celebrate the vision of the founder of Special Olympics. The event also aims to increase the momentum of the Special Olympics movement.

January 2011

The Special Olympics movement mourns the death of Sargent Shriver, husband of late founder Eunice Kennedy Shriver. He was also a longtime Special Olympics President and Chairman of the Board Emeritus.

June-July 2011

The 2011 Special Olympics World Summer Games are held in Athens, Greece. More than 6,000 athletes from 170 countries take part.

September 2011

Officials announce that the next Special Olympics World Summer Games will be held in the United States for the first time in 16 years. Los Angeles, California will welcome the World Games from July 25 to Aug. 2, 2015.

February 2012

The National Basketball Association and Special Olympics, with the support of The Coca-Cola Company, hold the first annual NBA Cares Unified Sports Basketball game. The event takes place as part of the 2013 NBA All-Star weekend in Houston, Texas, USA.
Ryan Higgins, Special Olympics athlete from Texas, keeps the ball from Special Olympics athlete Jian Gong, China and NBA legend Ron Harper.

Playing with Legends

The unified basketball games held by the National Basketball Association and Special Olympics gives Special Olympics basketball players from around the world the chance to play with NBA and WNBA pros.

May 2012

Special Olympics' global reach hits a new milestone, with more than 4 million athletes participating in programs around the world.

October 2012

A news conference announces that the 2017 Special Olympics World Winter Games will be held in Graz and Schladming in Styria, Austria. This marks a return to Austria, site of the first Special Olympics World Games held outside the United States (in 1993).

December 2012

The 'A Very Special Christmas' series -- the most successful benefit recording series in music history -- marks its 25th anniversary with the release of two new albums. The series has raised approximately $116 million and given crucial help to Special Olympics athletes and programs around the world, including Cambodia, Laos, Timor Leste, Lesotho, as well as China, Russia, Uganda and the USA.

January 2013

The Special Olympics World Winter Games in PyeongChang, Republic of Korea, features more than 2,300 athletes from 100 countries. It was held from 29 January to 5 February.

January 2013

Opening of the first Special Olympics Global Development Summit. The event brings together government officials, human rights activists, as well as leaders from the sports and business worlds to explore ways to "End the Cycle of Poverty and Exclusion for People with Intellectual Disabilities." The summit is held as part of the Special Olympics World Winter Games 2013.
Daw Aung San Suu Kyi of Burma attended the summit.

Global Development Summit

The Global Development Summit explores ways to "End the Cycle of Poverty and Exclusion for People with Intellectual Disabilities." The summit is held as part of the Special Olympics World Winter Games 2013 in Korea.

February 2013

Healthy Athletes breaks a new record at the World Winter Games in PyeongChang: more athletes receive free health screenings in a single day during the 2013 games than at any other time in the history of the Healthy Athletes program: 2,569 screenings were provided on 1 February alone.

March 2013

The Special Olympics program in Bharat (India) welcomes its one-millionth registered athlete.

May 2013

The latest annual census shows Special Olympics reaching new milestones in growth: more than 4.2 million athletes and 70,000 competitions around the world.


October 2013

Janet Froetscher is named Chief Executive Officer of the global Special Olympics movement. Dr. Timothy P. Shriver continues as Special Olympics Chairman, working with Froetscher and movement leaders to advance the Special Olympics mission around the world.

May 2014

Special Olympics' global reach expands to 4.4 million athletes around the world. Census numbers also show that as many as 80,000 events and competitions are held annually.
The Special Olympics Iraq delegation marches in the parade of athletes for Middle East-North Africa Regional Games in 2014.

80,000 Events a Year

The Special Olympics Middle East-North Africa regional games is a big event, and there are many thousands of smaller events in communities throughout the world every day of the year.

July 2014

U.S. President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama host “Celebration for Special Olympics and a Unified Generation” at the White House. Some of the world’s leading social activists, business leaders, sports legends and entertainers attended the event, which saluted the work of Special Olympics in engaging young people to fight inactivity, intolerance and injustice in their schools and communities.
Pop star Katy Perry presents a concert for guests and Special Olympics athletes after the dinner.
The dinner and concert hosted by U.S. President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama is a “Celebration for Special Olympics and a Unified Generation” at the White House.

May 2015

The latest census numbers show Special Olympics has expanded its reach to more than 4.5 million athletes worldwide. In one year alone, more than 94,000 Special Olympics events and competitions were held all around the world.